Análise de Água
A água é um elemento fundamental para a vida dos organismos e para todas as actividades humanas. A legislação actual especifica as características químicas, físicas e biológicas a respeitar de acordo com o objectivo final da água. A análise da água assegura que a sua qualidade para consumo, superficiais, subterrâneas e residuais está em total conformidade com as normas globais.
A Mérieux NutriSciences pode apoiá-lo na monotorização dos diferentes tipos de origem de água e da sua finalidade
- Para consumo humano: Água potável e mineral, águas balneares e spas, água utilizada em processos industriais alimentares.
- Água de origem superficial ou subterrânea: Rios, lagos, água do mar e água para abastecimento público, banhos, piscicultura e rega.
- Água residual: provenientes de efluentes industriais e domésticos, efluentes agrícolas ou zootécnicos.
- Outros tipos de água: Água de processos industriais
Água para consumo humano
A água potável é regulada a nível da UE pela Directiva 2020/2184, que propõe uma abordagem da segurança baseada no risco através da avaliação dos pontos de captação e do sistema de abastecimento. Aborda os poluentes emergentes, tais como microplásticos, desreguladores endócrinos e PFAS. Abre caminho à harmonização dos requisitos para a avaliação dos materiais destinados a entrar em contacto com a água potável. Contém:
- os ensaios a serem realizados,
- a abordagem da análise de risco,
- os requisitos mínimos de higiene para materiais em contacto com a água, e produtos químicos e materiais utilizados para o tratamento da água,
- frequência da monitorização
Quase todas as indústrias e atividades necessitam de monitorizar a qualidade da água ou porque é utilizada no processo (ex: industria alimentar), ou porque disponibilização água para consumo para os seus trabalhadores nas diferentes instalações.
Surface water quality is monitored to safeguard human health and protect aquatic life and the environment, even when the impact of any wastewater from agricultural and industrial activities has to be assessed. Different pollutants can contaminate them; among the most important chemicals, there are pesticides and emerging pollutants, but also microbiological and physical pollution can represent a threat to their cleanliness.
Since it is a source for human consumption, its monitoring is of fundamental importance for human health. The main sources of pollution are industries and anthropic activities.
The monitoring of the chemical-physical and microbiological parameters and the measurement of the freatimetric level have to be in full compliance with international environmental standards.
Industrial and domestic effluents (more commonly known as wastewater) are a potential source of water and soil pollution. Monitoring and treatment of effluents can contribute to protecting the safety of human health and the healthiness of the environment.
Wastewater tests are usually performed following specific monitoring and treatment programs. The tests include the characterization of industrial and domestic effluents for quality control, ecotoxicological analyses in compliance with international environmental standards and guidelines.
Emerging pollutants in water
According to the data from the World Health Organization (WHO), water pollution is the most important environmental aspect for human health, even before air pollution or climate change. While at world level, the risk is definitely linked to microbiological contamination, in industrialized countries, this factor is relatively low and it is overcome by chemical contamination, especially for long-term effects.
In addition to contaminants with high persistence in water, new substances increase the concern about possible health and environmental effects: contaminants of emerging concern are currently considered one of the most significant environmental problems. These include perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS), cyanobacteria, mycotoxins, drugs, hormones, psychoactive substances, pesticides, cosmetics, industrial additives.
These substances may potentially cause adverse effects on the environment and human health, but they are still not specifically regulated by legislation and their effects are unclear. Some of them are classified as endocrine disruptors: according to the WHO, such substances alter the normal functions of the hormonal system of living organisms and can have harmful effects on health rightly for this reason.
At local level, pollution could concern different types of substances and also by-products or reaction products to require an aggregate and cumulative risk assessment taking into account the multiplicity of exposures. Investigations in water systems mainly involve the Managing Authorities of the aqueducts, in particular as for water intended for drinking purposes and wastewater, to evaluate the effectiveness of the elimination of current treatment systems.
The monitoring based on the retrospective control of a limited number of parameters is now shifting to a preventive assessment of the risk associated with each area, with its own peculiarities and specific problems. This choice does not aim at retrospectively chasing the problems of water pollution, but at learning the characteristics of the various drinking water supply chains better to prevent any episodes of contamination. In the event of need, this allows to focus the attention even on emerging pollutants –that are not always subject to regulatory and ordinary control– whose effects should be monitored in the medium and long term.
This strategy becomes true through the adoption of the Water Safety Plans, formally requested by the WHO. The pioneering experience already carried out by the Managing Authorities in various hydro-drinking water systems confirms the effectiveness of this approach, also in emergency and post-emergency management.
Mérieux NutriSciences: a global service for water analysis
Our specialized laboratories perform chemical, microbiological and ecotoxicological analyses in different types of water and for the different uses. Among them, water used in food or pharma facilities, water in public bathing areas and spas, water for agricultural uses (such as irrigation of crops), and water used in industrial processes or urban and industrial effluents.
Mérieux NutriSciences supports customers in actively manage these risks through the implementation of a water safety plan including the maintenance of the equipment, several monitoring plans, and samples collection and analysis. Mérieux NutriSciences offers analytical methods for the determination of numerous pollutants, both “classic” and emerging, in wastewater and in water for human use, applying both targeted and non-targeted analysis.